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Как отформатировать строку JSON в виде таблицы, используя jq?

Я только начинал со сценариев Bash и наткнулся на jq для работы с JSON.

Мне нужно преобразовать строку JSON, как показано ниже, в таблицу для вывода в терминал.

[{
    "name": "George",
    "id": 12,
    "email": "[email protected]"
}, {
    "name": "Jack",
    "id": 18,
    "email": "[email protected]"
}, {
    "name": "Joe",
    "id": 19,
    "email": "[email protected]"
}]

Что я хочу отобразить в терминале:

ID        Name
=================
12        George
18        Jack
19        Joe

Обратите внимание, что я не хочу отображать свойство email для каждой строки, поэтому команда jq должна включать некоторую фильтрацию. Следующее дает мне простой список имен и идентификаторов:

list=$(echo "$data" | jq -r '.[] | .name, .id')
printf "$list"

Проблема в том, что я не могу отобразить это как таблицу. Я знаю, что у jq есть некоторые параметры форматирования, но они не так хороши, как при использовании printf. Я думаю, что я хочу получить эти значения в массиве, который я могу затем перебрать сам, чтобы сделать форматирование ...? То, что я пробовал, дает мне разные результаты, но никогда не то, чего я действительно хочу.

Может ли кто-нибудь указать мне правильное направление?

31
Rein

Почему не что-то вроде:

echo '[{
    "name": "George",
    "id": 12,
    "email": "[email protected]"
}, {
    "name": "Jack",
    "id": 18,
    "email": "[email protected]"
}, {
    "name": "Joe",
    "id": 19,
    "email": "[email protected]"
}]' | jq -r '.[] | "\(.id)\t\(.name)"'

Результат

12  George
18  Jack
19  Joe

Правка 1: Для точного форматирования используйте такие инструменты, как awk

 echo '[{
    "name": "George",
    "id": 12,
    "email": "[email protected]"
}, {
    "name": "Jack",
    "id": 18,
    "email": "[email protected]"
}, {
    "name": "Joe",
    "id": 19,
    "email": "[email protected]"
}]' | jq -r '.[] | [.id, .name] | @csv' | awk -v FS="," 'BEGIN{print "ID\tName";print "============"}{printf "%s\t%s%s",$1,$2,ORS}'
ID  Name
============
12  "George"
18  "Jack"
19  "Joe"

Правка 2: В ответ на

Я никак не могу получить переменную, содержащую массив из JQ?

Почему бы и нет?

Немного сложный пример (фактически модифицированный от вашего), где электронная почта заменена на массив, демонстрирует это

echo '[{
    "name": "George",
    "id": 20,
    "email": [ "[email protected]" , "[email protected]" ]
}, {
    "name": "Jack",
    "id": 18,
    "email": [ "[email protected]" , "[email protected]" ]
}, {
    "name": "Joe",
    "id": 19,
    "email": [ "[email protected]" ]
}]' | jq -r '.[] | .email'

Результат

[
  "[email protected]",
  "[email protected]"
]
[
  "[email protected]",
  "[email protected]"
]
[
  "[email protected]"
]
31
sjsam

Использование фильтра @tsv может многое рекомендовать, главным образом потому, что он обрабатывает многочисленные «крайние случаи» стандартным способом:

.[] | [.id, .name] | @tsv

Добавление заголовков можно сделать так:

jq -r '["ID","NAME"], ["--","------"], (.[] | [.id, .name]) | @tsv'

Результат:

ID  NAME
--  ------
12  George
18  Jack
19  Joe
40
peak

Определение заголовков вручную неоптимально! Опущение заголовков также неоптимально.

TL; DR

$ grep -e . /tmp/data /tmp/jq-scrigt 
/tmp/data:[{ "name": "George", "id": 12, "email": "[email protected]" },
/tmp/data:{ "name": "Jack", "id": 18, "email": "[email protected]" }, 
/tmp/data:{ "name": "Joe", "id": 19, "email": "[email protected]" }]
/tmp/jq-scrigt:  [.[]| with_entries( .key |= ascii_downcase ) ]
/tmp/jq-scrigt:|    (.[0] |keys_unsorted | @tsv)
/tmp/jq-scrigt:   , (.[]|.|map(.) |@tsv)


$ < /tmp/data jq -rf /tmp/jq-scrigt  | column -t
name    id  email
George  12  [email protected]
Jack    18  [email protected]
Joe     19  [email protected]

Я нашел этот вопрос, обобщая некоторые данные из веб-сервисов Amazon. Проблема, над которой я работал, на случай, если вы захотите еще один пример:

$ aws ec2 describe-spot-instance-requests | tee /tmp/ins |
    jq  --raw-output '
                                     # extract instances as a flat list.
    [.SpotInstanceRequests | .[] 
                                     # remove unwanted data
    | { 
        State, 
        statusCode: .Status.Code, 
        type: .LaunchSpecification.InstanceType, 
        blockPrice: .ActualBlockHourlyPrice, 
        created: .CreateTime, 
        SpotInstanceRequestId}
    ] 
                                        # lowercase keys
                                        # (for predictable sorting, optional)
    |  [.[]| with_entries( .key |= ascii_downcase ) ]
        |    (.[0] |keys_unsorted | @tsv)               # print headers
           , (.[]|.|map(.) |@tsv)                       # print table
    ' | column -t

Результат:

state      statuscode                   type     blockprice  created                   spotinstancerequestid
closed     instance-terminated-by-user  t3.nano  0.002000    2019-02-24T15:21:36.000Z  sir-r5bh7skq
cancelled  bad-parameters               t3.nano  0.002000    2019-02-24T14:51:47.000Z  sir-1k9s5h3m
closed     instance-terminated-by-user  t3.nano  0.002000    2019-02-24T14:55:26.000Z  sir-43x16b6n
cancelled  bad-parameters               t3.nano  0.002000    2019-02-24T14:29:23.000Z  sir-2jsh5brn
active     fulfilled                    t3.nano  0.002000    2019-02-24T15:37:26.000Z  sir-z1e9591m
cancelled  bad-parameters               t3.nano  0.002000    2019-02-24T14:33:42.000Z  sir-n7c15y5p

Входные данные:

$ cat /tmp/ins
{
    "SpotInstanceRequests": [
        {
            "Status": {
                "Message": "2019-02-24T15:29:38+0000 : 2019-02-24T15:29:38+0000 : Spot Instance terminated due to user-initiated termination.", 
                "Code": "instance-terminated-by-user", 
                "UpdateTime": "2019-02-24T15:31:03.000Z"
            }, 
            "ActualBlockHourlyPrice": "0.002000", 
            "ValidUntil": "2019-03-03T15:21:36.000Z", 
            "InstanceInterruptionBehavior": "terminate", 
            "Tags": [], 
            "InstanceId": "i-0414083bef5e91d94", 
            "BlockDurationMinutes": 60, 
            "SpotInstanceRequestId": "sir-r5bh7skq", 
            "State": "closed", 
            "ProductDescription": "Linux/UNIX", 
            "LaunchedAvailabilityZone": "eu-north-1a", 
            "LaunchSpecification": {
                "Placement": {
                    "Tenancy": "default", 
                    "AvailabilityZone": "eu-north-1a"
                }, 
                "ImageId": "AMI-6d27a913", 
                "BlockDeviceMappings": [
                    {
                        "DeviceName": "/dev/sda1", 
                        "VirtualName": "root", 
                        "NoDevice": "", 
                        "Ebs": {
                            "Encrypted": false, 
                            "DeleteOnTermination": true, 
                            "VolumeType": "gp2", 
                            "VolumeSize": 8
                        }
                    }
                ], 
                "EbsOptimized": false, 
                "SecurityGroups": [
                    {
                        "GroupName": "default"
                    }
                ], 
                "Monitoring": {
                    "Enabled": false
                }, 
                "InstanceType": "t3.nano", 
                "AddressingType": "public", 
                "NetworkInterfaces": [
                    {
                        "DeviceIndex": 0, 
                        "Description": "eth-zero", 
                        "NetworkInterfaceId": "", 
                        "DeleteOnTermination": true, 
                        "SubnetId": "subnet-420ffc2b", 
                        "AssociatePublicIpAddress": true
                    }
                ]
            }, 
            "Type": "one-time", 
            "CreateTime": "2019-02-24T15:21:36.000Z", 
            "SpotPrice": "0.008000"
        }, 
        {
            "Status": {
                "Message": "Your Spot request failed due to bad parameters.", 
                "Code": "bad-parameters", 
                "UpdateTime": "2019-02-24T14:51:48.000Z"
            }, 
            "ActualBlockHourlyPrice": "0.002000", 
            "ValidUntil": "2019-03-03T14:51:47.000Z", 
            "InstanceInterruptionBehavior": "terminate", 
            "Tags": [], 
            "Fault": {
                "Message": "Invalid device name /dev/sda", 
                "Code": "InvalidBlockDeviceMapping"
            }, 
            "BlockDurationMinutes": 60, 
            "SpotInstanceRequestId": "sir-1k9s5h3m", 
            "State": "cancelled", 
            "ProductDescription": "Linux/UNIX", 
            "LaunchedAvailabilityZone": "eu-north-1a", 
            "LaunchSpecification": {
                "Placement": {
                    "Tenancy": "default", 
                    "AvailabilityZone": "eu-north-1a"
                }, 
                "ImageId": "AMI-6d27a913", 
                "BlockDeviceMappings": [
                    {
                        "DeviceName": "/dev/sda", 
                        "VirtualName": "root", 
                        "NoDevice": "", 
                        "Ebs": {
                            "Encrypted": false, 
                            "DeleteOnTermination": true, 
                            "VolumeType": "gp2", 
                            "VolumeSize": 8
                        }
                    }
                ], 
                "EbsOptimized": false, 
                "SecurityGroups": [
                    {
                        "GroupName": "default"
                    }
                ], 
                "Monitoring": {
                    "Enabled": false
                }, 
                "InstanceType": "t3.nano", 
                "AddressingType": "public", 
                "NetworkInterfaces": [
                    {
                        "DeviceIndex": 0, 
                        "Description": "eth-zero", 
                        "NetworkInterfaceId": "", 
                        "DeleteOnTermination": true, 
                        "SubnetId": "subnet-420ffc2b", 
                        "AssociatePublicIpAddress": true
                    }
                ]
            }, 
            "Type": "one-time", 
            "CreateTime": "2019-02-24T14:51:47.000Z", 
            "SpotPrice": "0.011600"
        }, 
        {
            "Status": {
                "Message": "2019-02-24T15:02:17+0000 : 2019-02-24T15:02:17+0000 : Spot Instance terminated due to user-initiated termination.", 
                "Code": "instance-terminated-by-user", 
                "UpdateTime": "2019-02-24T15:03:34.000Z"
            }, 
            "ActualBlockHourlyPrice": "0.002000", 
            "ValidUntil": "2019-03-03T14:55:26.000Z", 
            "InstanceInterruptionBehavior": "terminate", 
            "Tags": [], 
            "InstanceId": "i-010442ac3cc85ec08", 
            "BlockDurationMinutes": 60, 
            "SpotInstanceRequestId": "sir-43x16b6n", 
            "State": "closed", 
            "ProductDescription": "Linux/UNIX", 
            "LaunchedAvailabilityZone": "eu-north-1a", 
            "LaunchSpecification": {
                "Placement": {
                    "Tenancy": "default", 
                    "AvailabilityZone": "eu-north-1a"
                }, 
                "ImageId": "AMI-6d27a913", 
                "BlockDeviceMappings": [
                    {
                        "DeviceName": "/dev/sda1", 
                        "VirtualName": "root", 
                        "NoDevice": "", 
                        "Ebs": {
                            "Encrypted": false, 
                            "DeleteOnTermination": true, 
                            "VolumeType": "gp2", 
                            "VolumeSize": 8
                        }
                    }
                ], 
                "EbsOptimized": false, 
                "SecurityGroups": [
                    {
                        "GroupName": "default"
                    }
                ], 
                "Monitoring": {
                    "Enabled": false
                }, 
                "InstanceType": "t3.nano", 
                "AddressingType": "public", 
                "NetworkInterfaces": [
                    {
                        "DeviceIndex": 0, 
                        "Description": "eth-zero", 
                        "NetworkInterfaceId": "", 
                        "DeleteOnTermination": true, 
                        "SubnetId": "subnet-420ffc2b", 
                        "AssociatePublicIpAddress": true
                    }
                ]
            }, 
            "Type": "one-time", 
            "CreateTime": "2019-02-24T14:55:26.000Z", 
            "SpotPrice": "0.011600"
        }, 
        {
            "Status": {
                "Message": "Your Spot request failed due to bad parameters.", 
                "Code": "bad-parameters", 
                "UpdateTime": "2019-02-24T14:29:24.000Z"
            }, 
            "ActualBlockHourlyPrice": "0.002000", 
            "ValidUntil": "2019-03-03T14:29:23.000Z", 
            "InstanceInterruptionBehavior": "terminate", 
            "Tags": [], 
            "Fault": {
                "Message": "Addressing type must be 'public'", 
                "Code": "InvalidParameterCombination"
            }, 
            "BlockDurationMinutes": 60, 
            "SpotInstanceRequestId": "sir-2jsh5brn", 
            "State": "cancelled", 
            "ProductDescription": "Linux/UNIX", 
            "LaunchedAvailabilityZone": "eu-north-1a", 
            "LaunchSpecification": {
                "Placement": {
                    "Tenancy": "default", 
                    "AvailabilityZone": "eu-north-1a"
                }, 
                "ImageId": "AMI-6d27a913", 
                "BlockDeviceMappings": [
                    {
                        "DeviceName": "/dev/sda", 
                        "VirtualName": "root", 
                        "NoDevice": "", 
                        "Ebs": {
                            "Encrypted": false, 
                            "DeleteOnTermination": true, 
                            "VolumeType": "gp2", 
                            "VolumeSize": 8
                        }
                    }
                ], 
                "EbsOptimized": false, 
                "SecurityGroups": [
                    {
                        "GroupName": "default"
                    }
                ], 
                "Monitoring": {
                    "Enabled": false
                }, 
                "InstanceType": "t3.nano", 
                "AddressingType": "", 
                "NetworkInterfaces": [
                    {
                        "DeviceIndex": 0, 
                        "Description": "eth-zero", 
                        "NetworkInterfaceId": "", 
                        "DeleteOnTermination": true, 
                        "SubnetId": "subnet-420ffc2b", 
                        "AssociatePublicIpAddress": true
                    }
                ]
            }, 
            "Type": "one-time", 
            "CreateTime": "2019-02-24T14:29:23.000Z", 
            "SpotPrice": "0.011600"
        }, 
        {
            "Status": {
                "Message": "Your spot request is fulfilled.", 
                "Code": "fulfilled", 
                "UpdateTime": "2019-02-24T15:37:28.000Z"
            }, 
            "ActualBlockHourlyPrice": "0.002000", 
            "ValidUntil": "2019-03-03T15:37:26.000Z", 
            "InstanceInterruptionBehavior": "terminate", 
            "Tags": [], 
            "InstanceId": "i-0a29e9de6d59d433f", 
            "BlockDurationMinutes": 60, 
            "SpotInstanceRequestId": "sir-z1e9591m", 
            "State": "active", 
            "ProductDescription": "Linux/UNIX", 
            "LaunchedAvailabilityZone": "eu-north-1a", 
            "LaunchSpecification": {
                "Placement": {
                    "Tenancy": "default", 
                    "AvailabilityZone": "eu-north-1a"
                }, 
                "ImageId": "AMI-6d27a913", 
                "BlockDeviceMappings": [
                    {
                        "DeviceName": "/dev/sda1", 
                        "VirtualName": "root", 
                        "NoDevice": "", 
                        "Ebs": {
                            "Encrypted": false, 
                            "DeleteOnTermination": true, 
                            "VolumeType": "gp2", 
                            "VolumeSize": 8
                        }
                    }
                ], 
                "EbsOptimized": false, 
                "SecurityGroups": [
                    {
                        "GroupName": "default"
                    }
                ], 
                "Monitoring": {
                    "Enabled": false
                }, 
                "InstanceType": "t3.nano", 
                "AddressingType": "public", 
                "NetworkInterfaces": [
                    {
                        "DeviceIndex": 0, 
                        "Description": "eth-zero", 
                        "NetworkInterfaceId": "", 
                        "DeleteOnTermination": true, 
                        "SubnetId": "subnet-420ffc2b", 
                        "AssociatePublicIpAddress": true
                    }
                ]
            }, 
            "Type": "one-time", 
            "CreateTime": "2019-02-24T15:37:26.000Z", 
            "SpotPrice": "0.008000"
        }, 
        {
            "Status": {
                "Message": "Your Spot request failed due to bad parameters.", 
                "Code": "bad-parameters", 
                "UpdateTime": "2019-02-24T14:33:43.000Z"
            }, 
            "ActualBlockHourlyPrice": "0.002000", 
            "ValidUntil": "2019-03-03T14:33:42.000Z", 
            "InstanceInterruptionBehavior": "terminate", 
            "Tags": [], 
            "Fault": {
                "Message": "Invalid device name /dev/sda", 
                "Code": "InvalidBlockDeviceMapping"
            }, 
            "BlockDurationMinutes": 60, 
            "SpotInstanceRequestId": "sir-n7c15y5p", 
            "State": "cancelled", 
            "ProductDescription": "Linux/UNIX", 
            "LaunchedAvailabilityZone": "eu-north-1a", 
            "LaunchSpecification": {
                "Placement": {
                    "Tenancy": "default", 
                    "AvailabilityZone": "eu-north-1a"
                }, 
                "ImageId": "AMI-6d27a913", 
                "BlockDeviceMappings": [
                    {
                        "DeviceName": "/dev/sda", 
                        "VirtualName": "root", 
                        "NoDevice": "", 
                        "Ebs": {
                            "Encrypted": false, 
                            "DeleteOnTermination": true, 
                            "VolumeType": "gp2", 
                            "VolumeSize": 8
                        }
                    }
                ], 
                "EbsOptimized": false, 
                "SecurityGroups": [
                    {
                        "GroupName": "default"
                    }
                ], 
                "Monitoring": {
                    "Enabled": false
                }, 
                "InstanceType": "t3.nano", 
                "AddressingType": "public", 
                "NetworkInterfaces": [
                    {
                        "DeviceIndex": 0, 
                        "Description": "eth-zero", 
                        "NetworkInterfaceId": "", 
                        "DeleteOnTermination": true, 
                        "SubnetId": "subnet-420ffc2b", 
                        "AssociatePublicIpAddress": true
                    }
                ]
            }, 
            "Type": "one-time", 
            "CreateTime": "2019-02-24T14:33:42.000Z", 
            "SpotPrice": "0.011600"
        }
    ]
}

Если значения не содержат пробелов, это может быть полезно:

read -r -a data <<<'name1 value1 name2 value2'

echo "name value"
echo "=========="

for ((i=0; i<${#data[@]}; i+=2)); do
  echo ${data[$i]} ${data[$((i+1))]}
done

Результат

name value
==========
name1 value1
name2 value2
0
Micha Wiedenmann